Remembrance sites and memorials

Fortresses and fortifications always had a primarily military function. They were built to keep attackers at bay and later often repurposed to hold prisoners. Many monuments are therefore closely linked to a long history of military conflicts and human tragedies.

Today, monuments, memorials and exhibitions remind us of the fateful twists and turns of the past. The ruins of the old town and fortress of Kostrzyn nad Odra (KĂŒstrin) (PL) is still in the same condition as it was left in 1945 after the hostilities between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army.

The fortified ideal city Terezin (Theresienstadt) (CZ) stands as an important memorial to the Holocaust crimes of the Second World War. Also Sonnenstein Castle in Pirna (D), Fort No. IX in Kaunas (LIT), Fort Breendonk in Willebroek (BEL) or the Oberer Kuhberg Fort at the Federal Fortress in Ulm deal with the Holocaust as memorials.


The end of the Second World War in 1945 took place in the heavily contested fortifications of the 20th century in Europe, just as older fortifications were also the scene of events at the end of the war. Whether liberation, destruction or a place of refuge for the civilian population, fortresses also influenced the fate of many people at this time.

For the commemorative year 2025, FORTE CULTURA is organising commemorative initiatives with various partners to raise public awareness of this part of history in fortresses. Educational and commemorative events in European fortresses are intended to shed light on the historical events and contexts and communicate them to a broad public.


Get to know the fateful history of fortresses with FORTE CULTURA

Kostrzyn nad Odrą (PL)

Kostrzyn nad Odrą (PL)

FORTE CULTURA Station: KĂŒstrin Fortress, Kostrzyn nad Odrą (PL) Prussian bulwark and once shining fortress town on the River Oder Experience history, architecture and nature in the "Pompei an...

TerezĂ­n (CZ)

TerezĂ­n (CZ)

FORTE CULTURA Station: Fortified ideal city of TerezĂ­n (CZ) Masterpiece of the fortress builders of the KuK monarchy Historic Elbe fortress and memorial to the Second World War The TerezĂ­n fortress (Theresienstadt - named after...

Torgau (DE)

Torgau (DE)

FORTE CULTURA Station: Torgau Fortress System (DE) Torgau and Hartenfels Castle Experience living history in Saxony's Elbe and state fortress! The Renaissance town of Torgau with its castle...

Ulm (DE)

Ulm (DE)

FORTE CULTURA Station: Federal Fortress Ulm (DE), Danube Fortress One of the largest fortifications in Europe A varied programme of experiences in the Danube metropolis of Ulm / Neu-Ulm The Federal Fortress Ulm was...


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