Fortresses of the 20th century

The fortress construction of the 20th century - caused by the enormous destructive power of constantly evolving weapon systems - led in a first phase to the mere reinforcement of existing facilities with the building material concrete.

But soon pure reinforced concrete structures replaced the classical fortifications. The fortress systems made of stone had served their time, since they had become largely ineffective militarily. At the latest with the First World War the modern fortress construction architecture flourished in order to protect itself against the emerging air forces and the impact force of the artillery.

The fortified heritage of this era of "architectura militaris" are single bunkers and bunker systems for military, civilian, armaments or government purposes as well as gigantic defense lines over thousands of miles across Europe.

The modern weapons technology meanwhile also allows the destruction of underground structures, so that the highlight of the bunker construction is in the history. Today, these monuments are exciting destinations. Many can be visited. Discover the impressive fortress heritage of the 20th century with FORTE CULTURA¬ģ and learn more about its dramatic history.

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Find out more about the fortress architecture of the 20th century.


Strongly fortified shelter or room complex in reinforced concrete construction, executed underground as a deep bunker.

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Lines of defence

Long row of heavily fortified shelters and obstacles in reinforced concrete construction, partly underground.

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